Definitions

Common Industry Definitions

Assembly
A wide variety of assembly services such as collating, filling, gluing, labeling, bagging, shrink wrapping, bag sealing, blister sealing, display assembly, package assembly, inspection, and bulk mail preparation are available. Some companies follow strict anti-contamination procedures to ensure a clean pack.

Backing Liner
The compressible paper material, usually pulp or newsboard, to which the liner is attached or adhered. This compressible paper material compensates for any irregularities on the sealing surface. Also provides additional strength, or water resistance, or better appearance.

Bag-In-Box
A sealed, usually spouted plastic bag inside a rigid outer container, generally used for packaging liquid products of varying viscosities. The outer box may be disposable or reusable. The container itself may be either partially emptied and resealed or may never be opened to ambient air (i.e., wine boxes). Consumer sizes usually range from one to six gallons while process and transportation sizes range from 55 to 300 gallons.

Bags
Stock and custom polybags, shrink bags, shipping bags, protective mailing bags, bags with air vent holes, currency bags, anti-static bags, double-wall bags, trash can liners, recycled bags, specimen/bio-hazard bags, ice bags, ziplock bags, vinyl cosmetic bags, garment bags, sports bags, specialty bags, cloth bags, reclosable bags, and bags made with specialty films. Graphics and color printing options are available.

Bar Code
An identification symbol where the value is encoded in a sequence of high contrast, rectangular bars and spaces. The relative widths of these bars and spaces contain the information. Identification is by visual or electronic means.

Barrier Material
Term used to describe one of two classes of specialized packaging materials that provide environmental protection to the package contents: (1) gas-, moisture-, or light-proof materials that control or eliminate the amount of these environmental constituents that pass into or out of a package; (2) a porous material possessing a structure that prevents the passage of microorganisms that might contaminate the contents of a package.

Bead
A narrow, round projection above or below the surface.

Bevel
The sloping edge of a container or part. A bevel adds a short flat span at the junction of two sides of a container.

Biodegradable
The degradation of material from naturally occurring microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi or algae over a period of time.

Blister Packaging
A product is secured between a preformed (usually transparent plastic) dome or "bubble" and a paperboard surface or "carrier". Attachment may be by stapling, heat-sealing, gluing, etc.

Blister Packs
A form of packaging and displaying merchandise in which the merchandise is sealed into a transparent molded plastic blister shaped to accommodate the merchandise with a foil or cardboard backing.

Blow Molding
A method of fabrication in which a warm plastic parison (hollow tube) is placed between the two halves of a mold (cavity) and forced to assume the shape of that mold cavity by the use of air pressure.

Board
A heavy weight thick sheet of paper or other fiber substance (from 0.012 to 0.030 inches and up). Variations: cardboard (non-specific term), chipboard, fiberboard, paperboard, containerboard, boxboard, tagboard.

Bottom Plate
The part of the mold which contains the heel (base) radius and the "push up" of the container to be formed.

Boxes, Paper
Paperboard, laminated recycled paperboard, folding cartons, as well as partitions and inserts. Color press printing is available.

Boxes, Plastic
Food storage containers, tote boxes, reshipper containers, powder boxes, pill boxes, hinged-lid containers, school supply boxes, lunch boxes, cosmetic and jewelry boxes, tool storage boxes, fish boxes and freezer boxes. Various shapes and colors are available, as well as decorating options.

Bubble Pack
A type of cushioning material that is made by trapping air between two layers of plastic material and using the "bubbles" to protect products inside their shipping containers. See blister packaging.

Cans, Composite
Cans produced from paper and other material, such as foil, wax, plastic or a glassine paper protective barrier, by wrapping around a mandrel. This is done either spirally (i.e., paper towel roll), or convolutely (i.e., carpet roll).

Cans, Fiber
Rigid cans made of compressed paper (plant fiber) material. Metal or plastic end caps available.

Cans, Metal
Stock and custom styles, including cone top, aerosol, F-style, easy open, open top, brush top, wing-open, tennis ball, paint, utility, seamless, oblong, TT and slip cover. Various shapes, sizes and decoration options are available.

Cans, Plastic
Stock and custom styles, including cone top, aerosol, F-style, 5 gallon square, paint and utility cans.

Capacity
The volume of space inside a container provided for a given amount of product. Note the difference between capacity and overflow capacity.

Cavity
In plastic blow molding, the parts of the mold that combine to provide the container body shape.

Cert. of Compliance
Certificate of Compliance. A document signed by an authorized party affirming that the supplier of a product or service has met the requirements of the relevant specifications, contract or regulation.

Chipboard
A low quality non-test paperboard made of waste paper for use where specified strength or quality is not necessary. May be bending or non-bending, used for corrugated pads or as dividers, or as filler in thicker paperboards. Also used in the manufacture of spiralwound cans.

Closures
Stock and custom closures, including plastic, glass, rubber, metal, dispensing (hinged top, snip top, disc top, thread, snap-on, push/pull), conventional (ribbed, fluted, smooth), specialty (bleach, brush well, jigger, button seal, aerosol, perforated), linerless, lined, applicator, decorative, child resistant, tamper evident, heat seal, crimp-on, and a Counter Cap closure.


Co-Extrusion
Extruding two or more layers of thermoplastic materials to form a combined film sheet or molded unit. Limited to plastics.

Color Concentrate
A measured amount of dye or pigment incorporated into a predetermined amount of plastic which is then "let down" (mixed) into larger quantities of virgin plastic material to be used for molding. The "concentrate" is added to the bulk of plastic in a measured quantity in order to produce a precise, predetermined color of the finished articles to be molded.

Compatibility
Ability of a container, whether lined or unlined, to resist degradation of or by the product contained.

Compostable Plastic
Plastic that undergoes degradation by biological processes during composting to yield CO2, water, inorganic compounds, and biomass at a rate consistent with other known compostable materials and leave no visible, distinguishable or toxic residue.

Containers, Hinged Lid
Any container with a lid attached by means of a hinge. Cosmetic compacts and accessory cases, carrying cases, luggage, lunch boxes, attache cases, and recyclable containers. Various sizes and colors are available, as well as decoration and custom design.

Contract Packaging
Assembling, labeling, packaging, shrink wrapping, filling, stapling, sampling, material blending, palletizing, poster rolling, warehousing, fulfillment, coding, package design, collating, bagging, blister sealing and bulk mail preparation. Can provide either mobile or stationary contract packaging services for some industries. Strict anti-contamination procedures are available for items requiring such packaging.

Corrugated Board
A packaging material consisting of a central member (medium) which has been fluted on a corrugator and to which one or two flat sheets of paperboard have been glued to form single-faced corrugated board or double-faced (single wall) corrugated fiberboard. The combination of two mediums and three facings is called double wall and the combination of three mediums and four facings is called triple wall. Corrugated board is generally made in four flute sizes, designated A, B, C and E.

Crimp Seal
A method of heat-sealing thermoplastic coated papers or thermoplastic films with the pressure exerted by knurled wheels or bars having a corrugated surface.

Desiccants
Any of various materials used as drying agents during the packing process. Common desiccants include silica gel and calcium oxide. A wide choice of standard and custom desiccant items is available to accommodate any package. Please read our white paper on Choosing In Wall Desiccants for more information.

Die
Any tool or arrangement of tools designed to cut, shape, or otherwise form materials to a desired configuration.

Disposal
Disposal refers to any end-of-life management process including recycling, recovery for reuse, composting, incineration or landfilling, etc.

Distributor
In addition to the manufacturers included in RapidFind, a multitude of stock products is available through a distributor network. Items such as bottles, pharmaceutical supplies and equipment, drum handling equipment, container components, raw materials, laboratory supplies, packaging products, kitchenware, baby items, maintenance and safety supplies, wine and beer making equipment and supplies, veterinary products, food service products, painting products, shipping supplies, paper products, chemical products, nail care accessories and wood pallets, can be purchased and shipped from warehoused stock.

Dividers
A device, made of various materials, which separates the space within a container into two or more spaces, cells, compartments, or layers. Dividers may be plain, interlocking, scored, horizontal, vertical, or diagonal. The primary purpose of dividers is to separate the articles and/or to furnish cushioning.

Dome
A closure where the whole top surface is domed, starting at the shoulder. Doming adds to streamlining of package appearance and to the apparent height.

Dry Blend
Refers to a molding compound containing all necessary ingredients mixed in a way that produces a dry, free flowing, particulate material. This term is commonly used in connection with polyvinyl chloride molding compound.

Easy-Open End
A can end that is scored on the circumference and fitted with a gripping device (tab) for easy removal of end.

E-Flute
A piece of corrugation with a height of 3/64 inch excluding the facing, generally spaced about 90 to 98 flutes per foot.

Emboss
Raised design or lettering on the surface of an object accomplished by pressure of dies, rollers, printing press, etc.

EPA
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). One function of the EPA is to regulate the labeling, packaging and registration of pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. The EPA is the sole federal agency with the authority to regulate child-resistant packaging for pesticides. Since March 9, 1979, child-resistant packaging has been required for all residential use pesticides labeled with a human hazard signal word of danger or warning.

EPS
Expandable polystyrene. A generic term for polystyrene and styrene copolymers, supplied as a compound with physical blowing agents and other additives which can be processed into low density foamed articles. A major end-use is cushioned packaging. Low molding pressures and economical tooling make EPS molding an inexpensive method of producing foam shapes.

Equipment, Bagging
Semi- and fully automatic plastic bagging equipment, and bag imprinting equipment. Refurbishing of bagging equipment is also available.

Equipment, Filling
Liquid and aerosol, bottle, and siphon filling equipment, cup filling equipment for powders and granules, auger filling equipment for free flowing products, and pressure and gravity filling equipment.

Equipment, Hand-Held
A wide range of equipment such as stretch film assemblers, lightweight impact wrenches, cappers and de-cappers, and aluminum and plastic tools for removing plastic pail lids, all designed to operate manually.

Equipment, Labeling
Automatic and semi-automatic labeling systems. Varieties include equipment for carton printing, bottle labeling, bag printing, de-labeling, sleeve labeling, and small character ink jet printing.

Equipment, Packaging
Label applicators, dispensers, stenciling systems, and equipment for packaging medical devices.

Equipment, Sealing
Equipment for a wide range of objectives including sealing closures after filling containers, sealing molded plastic components, sealing flexible plastic packaging, etc. Manual, semi-automatic and automatic systems are available.

Extender
A substance, generally having some adhesive action, added to a product, such as an adhesive, ink, or paint, to reduce the amount of the primary resin required per unit area.

Extruded Film
Film produced by extrusion of molten resin through a die.

Extrusion
A method of shaping a plastic material by forcing it, with the application of heat and pressure, through an orifice in a continuous fashion.

Extrusion Blow Molding
A method of fabrication in which a hollow plastic tube (parison) is forced into the shape of the mold cavity by internal air pressure. Post finishing of the product is required. A video of the process is located here.

FDA
Food & Drug Administration. This agency governs what items may be used in foods, drugs and cosmetics. It regulates the labeling of foods, drugs, cosmetics and devices under both FPLA (Fair Packaging and Labeling Act, 1966) and FFDCA (Federal Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act).

Fill Point
The level to which a container must be filled to furnish a designated quantity of the contents.

Film
(1) Unsupported, basically organic non-fibrous, thin, flexible material not usually exceeding 0.0003 inch in thickness. (2) Generally, a thin coating.

Final Packaging Material
Final packaging material refers to the material substrates and ready-to-use auxiliaries such as inks, adhesives and coatings used to produce packaging. The phrase is also used to distinguish substrates from raw source materials and processed auxiliary materials from the individual formulation chemicals that comprise them.

Finish
In general, the plastic forming the opening of a container shaped to accommodate a specific closure. Also, the ultimate surface structure of an article. In RapidFind, Finish is one of the search criteria as described below. In the Glass and Plastic product types, Finish is expressed as 24-410, 20mm Crimp, 38mm Snap, etc. The Finish description reflects the outside diameter of a bottle or jar's neck in mm's, and a thread configuration or some other description of how the closure fits on the container. In the Closure product type, Finish refers to the thread configuration. Common configurations are -410, -2030, etc.

Flange
(1) Generally, a projecting or flared edge, rib, etc., to hold, strengthen or facilitate the use of an object or part. (2) In steel drums and cans, a right angle flare or nearly right angle formed in the ends of the body-cylinder to enable heads and bottoms to be double seamed to the body. (3) In drum closures, the threaded fitting which receives the closure plug.

Flash Line
A raised line appearing on the surface of a molding and formed at the junction of mold faces.

Flexible Packaging
Packaging involving the use of such flexible materials as foils, films, paper, flexible sheeting, etc., to form the container, basically wraps, bags, envelopes and pouches.

Flexographic Printing
Formerly called aniline printing. A method of rotary letterpress printing that employs rubber or plastic plates and rapid drying inks. Extensively used in the printing of packaging materials as well as other printing applications.

Flute
(1) A rib or corrugation on a surface; one of the undulations of a corrugated material. (2) A flat surface in a cylindrical container.

Foil (Laminated)
Foil bonded to other materials such as paper, board, films, etc., by means of an adhesive.

Folding Carton
A container made of bending grades of paperboard. Formed by the maker, and to be set up, filled and closed by the user. Folding cartons are made in a multitude of styles, a few of which are: tuck-end carton, reverse tuck, straight tuck, two-piece and many others. A general class of paperboard container, distinct from set-up boxes and corrugated and solid fiber boxes.

Frosting
A crystalline finish or pattern on a glass surface.

Gloss
Shine or luster of the surface of a material. If a surface clearly and plainly reflects an image of light, it has a high gloss.

GMP
Good manufacturing practices. Regulations promulgated by the FDA under which device manufacturers must produce, package, and label their devices.

Gold Lacquer
A protective coating which has a yellow color. May be of lacquer or baked enamel.

Hanging Tabs
Hanging tabs for merchandise display, piggyback tags for attaching promotional items to other merchandise and product identification tags. Styles on some of the tabs include slot, Euro-style, round hole, hook, bottleneck and inventory.

Haze
The degree of cloudiness in a plastic material.

HDPE
High density polyethylene. The resin of choice in blow molding because it is stiff, chemical resistant, has good processing behavior and good environmental stress crack resistance (ESCR). This ESCR makes it a good choice for bleach and detergent bottles where resins having densities between 0.950 and 0.960 and above are commonly chosen. Injection blow molding is a proven and valued processing technique when a container benefits from excellent neck finish and lack of pinch-off.

Headspace
Space between the level of the contents of a container and the closure. Headspace is required to allow for expansion of a product due to heat or pressure, and to allow the container to be grasped without spilling the contents.

Heat Transfer
Process similar to hot stamping except preprinted images on a carrier web are applied by heat and pressure to the surface to be printed. Multicolor decoration is a one-step process. Method is widely used for decorating plastic bottles but also for glass and folding cartons.

Heat-Seal
A method of uniting two or more surfaces by fusion, either of the coatings or of the base materials, under controlled conditions of temperature, pressure and time (dwell).

Hot Stamping
This decorating technique utilizes a die (design) that cuts metal foils from a ribbon and by heat, embosses the design onto the surface of the plastic containers. Often used in conjunction with silkscreening on cosmetic containers such as those used for shampoos and conditioners.

ID
Inside diameter of a container or container part, ordinarily of the container shell or body.

Impact Resistance
Relative susceptibility of plastics to fracture by shock as indicated by the energy expended by a standard pendulum type impact machine. The ability to withstand mechanical abuse in service, as related to dropping and impacts.

Impact Strength
(1) The ability of a material to withstand shock loading. (2) The amount of energy needed to fracture, under shock loading, a specified test specimen in a specified manner.

Injection Blow Molding
A two-stage process of plastic bottle manufacturing where a preform or parison is injection molded. The bottle finish is formed at this time. The preform is then transferred to a blow mold where the bottle takes its final shape. A video of the process is located here.

Injection Mold
A mold into which a plastic resin is introduced by pressure from an exterior heated cylinder.

Injection Molding
A molding process whereby a heat softened plastic resin is forced from a heating cylinder into a relatively cool cavity which gives the product a desired shape.

Ink Jet Printing
Non-impact method of printing whereby tiny drops of ink are formed into letter, number or other configuration and sprayed on to the object or surface to be printed. Can be used for high speed printing. A major application is for code marking beverage cans.

Inner Seal
An extra seal of comprising a sheet that is resistant to water vapor or vapor from some chemical, and adhered to the top end of a container below the regular cover or closure, to give added protection to the contents, such as: hygroscopic materials like soluble coffee, volatile chemicals such as chloroform, or creams and ointments containing volatile ingredients. The added protection includes: barrier to movement of water vapor or volatile chemicals and perfumes, and protection against tampering, contamination and leakage.

Kraft
A chemical wood pulp made by the sulphate process, or paper or paperboard made from such pulp. It is brown in color and is the strongest pulp product made from wood.

Label Panel
That portion of the body of a container to which labels are affixed or decoration imprinted.

Labels
Self-sticking, bar code, UPC, IBM, mylar, cloth, color, aluminum, wrap-around, spot, cling, sleeve, pressure sensitive, heat transfer, DOT, in-mold, expanded content, holographic, rotating, inverted vertical hanging, medical, shipping, international wordless, paper, booklet, production, inventory, and shrink labels. Printing and decorating options are available.

LDPE
Low density polyethylene. LDPE is similar to HDPE in composition. It is less rigid and generally less chemically resistant than HDPE, but more translucent. Used primarily for squeeze applications. LDPE is significantly more expensive than HDPE, but will yield a glossy bottle when produced in colors.

Liner
In the manufacture of closures, a disc of paper, cork, composition, etc., retained in a closure to provide a sealing surface against the finish of a container.

Liner Board
A type of paperboard used in making corrugated cartons.

Lip
The extreme outer edge of the top of a container intended to facilitate pouring.

Matte Finish
A coating surface which displays no gloss when observed at any angle. Also referred to as a flat finish.

MDPE
Medium density polyethylene. Slightly stiffer and has a higher melting index than low density polyethylene. Widely used in film.

Metallizing
The process of coating a plastic item with a thin layer of metal to give a gold, silver or other metal look. It is commonly used on closures used for cosmetic packaging.

Metric
A metric is the method used to express an indicator. A metric is used to gauge the issue or characteristic - represented by an indicator - that an organization wants or needs to assess. Metrics are often computational or quantitative, but can also be a qualitative assessment of an indicator. Metrics - particularly computational metrics - are typically expressed as a numerator and a denominator, i.e., "A per B."

Metric Conversions
Volume metric conversions include: 1 ounce = 29.57 or 8 drams, 8 ounces = 236.60 cc, 16 ounces = 473.20 cc, and 32 ounces = 946.40 cc. Liquid Capacity metric conversions include: 1 fluid ounce = 29.57 ml, 8 fluid ounces = 236.60 ml, 16 fluid ounces = 473.20 ml, 32 fluid ounces = 946.40 ml, 1 liter = 33.81 fluid ounces, 1 U.S. Gallon = 3.78 Liters, and 1 Imperial Gallon = 153.72 fluid ounces.

Minimum Wall
A term designating the thickness of the wall (body) of a container. Usually specified as the minimum thickness allowable for the body of a container.

MM
Millimeter. Metric unit of length equivalent to approximately 0.04 inch.

Mold
Also mould. (1) To shape plastic parts of finished articles by heat and pressure. (2) The cavity or matrix into which the plastic composition is placed and from which it takes its form. (3) The assembly of all parts that function collectively in the molding process.

Mold Maker, Blow Molded
Design and production of molds for the manufacture of plastic items produced by any of several blow molding processes. Mold repair is also available.

Mold Maker, Injection
Custom injection molds for closures, medical packaging and a wide variety of plastic items made by the injection molding process. Molds can be built to process a wide range of resins from commodity to engineering.

Mold Number
The number assigned to each mold or set of molds for identification purposes, usually placed in that part of the container mold that forms the base of the container.

Mold Release
A chemical substance used to facilitate the freeing of a molded object from the mold in which it was formed. Unless the substance is cleaned from the object molded, it may cause adhesion problems at a later stage in manufacturing.

Mold Seam
A vertical line formed at the point of contact of the mold halves. The prominence of the line depends on the accuracy with which the mating mold halves are matched. Also known as parting line.

Multi-Cavity Mold
A mold with more than one cavity impressions. Therefore, the mold produces two or more bottles per molding cycle.

Nesting Containers
Containers made with sloping sidewalls so they can be nested in each other when empty to conserve space.

Novelty Items, Plastic
Items available include PVC canisters in the shape of characters such as a Santa Claus boot, taxi, or train, candy jar containers, brightly colored boxes for school supplies, cosmetics, jewelry, drinking straws

Oblong
A particular shape. A rectangular figure having greater length than width, may have angle or rounded corners and parallel or nearly parallel sides.

OD
Outside dimension. The outside dimensions of a container, package or part. In metal drums, it is the diameter over the rolling hoops.

Offset Printing
This method of printing utilizes printing plates rather than silk screens to transfer the ink to the containers. Offset printing is more exact than silk screening, and is practical for multiple color labeling. Offset printing is utilized primarily on round containers. Because plates are engraved for each color rather than making screens, offset is more expensive than silk screening. The process involves transferring ink from a printing plate to a rubber blanket and subsequently to the sheet (surface to be decorated).

Opaque
Descriptive of material or substance which will not transmit light.

OPET
Oriented PET.

Oval
A particular shape. A container which has an elliptical cross section perpendicular to the major axis.

Package Development
Development services include package concept, design, drawings, models and prototypes, decorating options, estimated costs, and coordination of physical and time factors.

Package Testing Service
Evaluation of basic packaging materials such as corrugated, paper and paperboard, foams, plastics, and films. Tests include shock transmission, vibration analysis, tear, creep, burst test, altitude testing, etc.

Packaging Component
A packaging component is any stand-alone element of a primary or secondary package such as a bottle cap or a protective sleeve, or any stand-alone element of transport packaging such as a pallet or strapping, and includes labels, adhesives, inks and/or coatings used on the component.

Pails
Plastic and steel. Various sizes and shapes are available, as well as different decorating options.

Partitions
Custom corrugated, B, C, and E flute corrugated, chipboard, plain or pre-printed, solid bleached sulfate and poly-coated partitions. Die cutting, slotting, printing and decoration are available.

Performance Testing
The evaluation of a distribution package to determine its suitability to carry a packaged product through its distribution channel, without damage to the product, by simulating conditions within the transportation environment.

Permeability
(1) The passage/diffusion of a gas, vapor, liquid, or solid through a barrier without physically or chemically affecting it. (2) The rate of such passage.

PET
Polyethylene terephthalate. Known as thermoplastic polyester. Has the unusual ability to exist in either an amorphous or highly crystalline state. The crystalline state is necessary for extruding the material, and the amorphous state permits it to be oriented. Widely used in beverage bottles and in food trays designed for microwave and conventional ovens.

Plastic Recycling Code
The recycling code on the bottom of each container consists of a triangle formed by three arrows, with a number in the center and distinguishing letters under the triangle. The number codes are: 1) PETE = polyethylene terephthalate, 2) HDPE = high density polyethylene, 3) V = vinyl, 4) LDPE = low density polyethylene, 5) PP = polypropylene, 6) PS = polystyrene, and 7) Other.

Plastics, Blow Molded
Stock and custom blow molded plastics. Various types of resins used include HDPE, LDPE, P/P, PVC, PET, K-resin, thermoplastic rubber, elastomer, Lexan, and Barex.

Plastics, Dip Molded
Dip molding is used to produce custom molded plastic parts, including grips, sleeves, and bellows. The process offers low tooling costs, short tooling lead times, various surface textures and no exterior surface parting lines.

Plastics, Injection Molded
Stock and custom injection molded plastics. Various types of resins used include engineered resins, commodity resins, HDPE, polycarbonates, P/P, K-resin, thermoplastic rubber, and elastomer.

PMS
Pantone Matching System. A series of standard colors commonly used by package designers and manufacturers. These are published by Pantone, Inc. Communication of specified colors can be made with a code number on a tear-away chip taken from the book.

Polyethylene
A thermoplastic material composed of polymers of ethylene. It is normally a translucent, tough, waxy solid which is unaffected by water and by a large range of chemicals. There are three general classifications: low density, medium density, and high density.

Poly-Line
Poly-Line is a backing material to which facings are laminated in the manufacture of duplex liners. It is a construction of white P/E laminated to P/S foam on one or both sides. Poly-Line is an alternative to P/E foam.

Polymer
A high molecular weight organic compound, natural or synthetic, whose structure can be represented by a repeated small unit, the polymer; i.e., polyethylene, rubber, cellulose. Synthetic polymers are formed by addition or condensation polymerization of monomers. If two or more monomers are involved, a copolymer is obtained. Some polymers are elastomers, some plastics.

Polypropylene
Polypropylene is similar to polyethylene, but each unit of the chain has a methyl group attached. It is translucent, autoclavable, and has no known solvent at room temperature. It is slightly more susceptible than polyethylene to strong oxidizing agents. It offers the best stress-crack resistance of the polyolefins. Products made of polypropylene are brittle at ambient temperature and may crack or break if dropped from benchtop height. Used in film, sheet, and molded rigid containers.

Polypropylene Alloy
Abbreviation PPAL. A physical blend of polypropylene and high-density polyethylene resulting in characteristics common to both resins, with an additional barrier to the migration of essential oils.

Polystyrene
A thermoplastic material derived from the polymerization of styrene (vinyl benzene); non-toxic, tasteless, odorless, good general dielectric properties; excellent water and weather resistance and resistant to most foods, drinks, etc., with the exception of essential oils, gasoline, turpentine, which will harm the material. Poor impact strength.

Polyvinyl Acetate
A thermoplastic material prepared by the polymerization of vinyl acetate alone. A colorless solid with good resistance to water and concentrated acids and alkalies.

Polyvinyl Chloride
Abbreviation PVC. See additional info under PVC. Rigid, natural straw color, transparent, good barrier properties with excellent resistance to oxygen permeation, excellent resistance to oils and fair impact resistance.

Post-Fill
To fill containers after labeling instead of labeling them after filling and closing, which is called pre-fill.

Pouches
Various films are available for stock and custom pouches to create a flexible package for liquids, including chemicals, food products, and beverages.

Pre-Fill
To fill containers before applying labels to them.

Preform
An injection-molded parison which is blow molded by a second step to form a plastic bottle.

Pressure Sens. Label
A die cut label coated with a pressure-sensitive pre-applied tacky adhesive and requiring pressure only to adhere it to a package or product.

Printing
Custom printing, including brochures and catalogs, typesetting, photography, letterhead printing, computer graphic design, custom-imprinted advertising, ceramic printing for glass containers, paperboard imprinting, pad printing, offset printing on metal plates, and printing on carbonless forms.

Prototype Mold
A simplified mold construction often made from a light metal casting alloy or from an epoxy resin to provide actual molding for evaluation and testing prior to production mold consideration.

PS-113
Pressure sensitive adhesive coated on polystyrene foam.

PVC
Polyvinyl chloride. A thermoplastic material composed of polymers of vinyl chloride, a colorless solid with outstanding resistance to water, alcohols, and concentrated acids and alkalines. Compounded with plasticizers, it yields a flexible material superior to rubber in aging properties.

Recyclable
Packaging materials that may be processed for reuse by a series of changes or treatments, but not necessarily for their original use.

Resin
Any of a class of solid or semi-solid organic products of natural or synthetic origin, generally non-crystalline and of high molecular weight with no definite melting point. Most resins are polymers.

Resin Additives
Fillers, stabilizers, color pigments, etc., that are mixed in small quantities with resins to manufacture plastic items.

Resins
Various physically similar synthetic chemical compounds which are used to manufacture plastic items. Common resins include high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (P/P), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET).

Sealing Surface
That portion of a glass or plastic container finish which will make contact with the interior liner of the cap to effect the seal.

Seam on Top/Side of Finish
A finish defect. A fin of glass across the top or the side of the finish.

Seamless
Made in one piece without a joint.

Shrink Bands
Stock and custom sizes of PVC and PETG shrink bands, including tamper evident, seamless and seamed bands, cellulose self-sealing bands and Viscose Celon shrink bands. Options include printing and color decoration.

Shrink Labels & Bands
Pre-decorated plastic sleeves that are slipped over the container and heated until they conform to the surface of the container. Same principle as the sleeve label, but superior for odd and small shapes.

Slip Cap
A closure made of soft material such as polyethylene or rubber, without threads, to be pushed over the tip or neck of a container and held in place by friction.

Sourcing
Sourcing, as used in the indicator definitions, refers to and includes all of the functions involved in the growth, harvest or extraction, and processing or raw materials and the collection and processing of

Storage Life
The period of time during which a product can be stored under specified temperature conditions and remain suitable for use. Sometimes called shelf life or working life.

Sustainable
Process or state that can be maintained at a certain level indefinitely, to provide the best outcomes for the human and natural environments both now and into the indefinite future.

Tins, Decorative
Specialty metal packaging. Usually recyclable. Decorative slip cover tins are used to advertise the product. Some tins are considered collector's items after product packaged inside is consumed.

Tolerance
A specified allowance for deviations in weighing, measuring, etc., or for deviations from the standard dimensions or weight.

Translucent
Descriptive of a material or substance transmitting some light, but not clear enough to be seen through.

Transparent
Descriptive of a material or substance capable of a high degree of light transmission (e.g., glass). Some polypropylene films and acrylic moldings are outstanding in this respect.

Trays
PET cake and ice cream roll trays, glass trays, medical prep, sterilized instrument and procedure set-up trays, produce trays, CPET and HDPE trays for use in microwave or conventional ovens, food cutting, display, and carrying trays, and wallpaper and paint roller trays.

Tubes
PET and cellulose propionate flex tubing. Various sizes are available. Shapes include square, round, triangle and rectangle. Options include shell, beaded, hang-up and threaded.

Volume
Also known as displacement or capacity.  The amount of product a container is designed to hold, i.e., up to the fill-point of the container.

Wide Mouth
Wide mouth describes any container having an opening roughly half of the diameter of the container to almost the full diameter size of the container.